Learning from human preferences is important for language models to be helpful and useful for humans, and to align with human and social values. Prior work have achieved remarkable successes by learning from human feedback to understand and follow instructions. Nonetheless, these methods are either founded on hand-picked model generations that are favored by human annotators, rendering them ineffective in terms of data utilization and challenging to apply in general, or they depend on reward functions and reinforcement learning, which are prone to imperfect reward function and extremely challenging to optimize. In this work, we propose a novel technique, Chain of Hindsight, that is easy to optimize and can learn from any form of feedback, regardless of its polarity. Our idea is inspired by how humans learn from extensive feedback presented in the form of languages. We convert all types of feedback into sentences, which are then used to fine-tune the model, allowing us to take advantage of the language comprehension capabilities of language models. We condition the model on a sequence of model generations paired with feedback. By doing so, models are trained to generate outputs based on feedback, and models can learn to identify and correct negative attributes or errors. Applying our method to large language models, we observed that Chain of Hindsight significantly surpasses previous methods in aligning language models with human preferences. We observed significant improvements on summarization and dialogue tasks and our approach is markedly preferred in human evaluations.

Leave a Reply

Help us find great AI content


Never miss a thing! Sign up for our AI Hackr newsletter to stay updated.


AI curated tools and resources. Find the best AI tools, reports, research entries, writing assistants, chrome extensions and GPT tools.